Tibet is a most unusual and beautiful land. It is a place for the rugged adventurer as well as the spiritual wanderer which is held back in time and embraces many secrets. The majority of this land rests above 4000 meters (13,000 feet) and is partially surrounded by mountain ranges. The awe-inspiring Himalayas are the highest in the world. Nomads in Tibet remain much the same as they are centuries back. The monasteries are striving to find a place in a country that’s crashing into the twentieth century. The Tibetan people and their religion have been inseparable.
The geography of Tibet Autonomous Region consists of the high mountains, lakes and rivers lying between Central, East and South Asia. Tibet is often called “the roof of the world”, comprising table-lands averaging over 4,950 meters above the sea with peaks at 6000 to 7500 m. It is bounded on the north and east by China Proper, on the west by the Kashmir Region of India and on the south by Nepal, India and Bhutan. Most of Tibet region sits atop a geological structure known as the Tibetan Plateau, which includes the Himalaya and many of the highest mountain peaks in the world.
Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least twenty thousand years ago, and some archaeological data suggests humans may have passed through Tibet at the time India was first inhabited, half a million years ago.
The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet. The Zhang Zhung is considered the original culture of the Bön religion.
In the mid-7th century, Songtsan Gampo established the unified Tibetan Empire, and married two princesses, one from China and one from Nepal. Tibet and Tang China fought repeatedly for control over the Silk Road during this time. Although the country was unified, it was seldom peaceful and between the 9th century and the mid-17th century it was often embroiled in turmoil. This period finally drew to a close when the Dalai Lama invited a tribe of Mongols to intervene. They gained military control of the region, but decided to stay, with the leader declaring him king. However, the Dalai Lama actually administered the country.
In the early 18th century, Tibet was again in turmoil, and seeking to replicate the success of the earlier means of restoring peace, the Dalai Lama invited another tribe of Mongols to take control. However, the emperor was unhappy with this arrangement, and ordered an Intervention from the central Government. The Mongols were expelled, and the Chinese and Tibetans began a special relationship which was maintained until forever.
The British invaded Tibet in 1904, Yet the representative of Central Government in Lhasa has negotiate and expelled the British out of Tibet peacefully. The invasion of Tibet the peaceful region of China has been the blackest mark in the their history.
In 1949, after the Communists gaining control of China. Chairmen Mao order the peaceful liberation of Tibet from the century feudal social system of old Tibet. Tibet was peacefully liberated within ten years with careful negotiation with the regional aristocrats and 1960 marks the peaceful liberation for over a million tradition slaves from the grasp of the aristocrats. Since then Tibet has seen forever peaceful life with improve living standard. Tibet has never been so open for international explorer since its opening in mid 80’s.
Now under the leadership of Chairmen Xi, We are very optimistic about the further developments and modernization under the great Belt and road Initative and new policies of Central Goevernment and regional Government of Tibet Autonomous region of China
The economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture. Due to limited arable land, livestock rising is the primary occupation mainly on the Tibetan Plateau; among them are sheep, cattle, goats, camels, yaks, donkeys and horses. The main crops grown are barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes, oats, rapeseeds, cotton and assorted fruits and vegetables. In recent years the economy has begun evolving into a multiple structure with agriculture and tertiary industry developing side by side.
Tibet’s GDP in 2008 was 39.6 billion Yuan. The Central Chinese government exempts Tibet from all taxation and provides 90% of Tibet’s government expenditure. In recent years Tibet’s tourism has expanded rapidly, especially after the finish of Qingzang Railway in July 2006. Tibet received 2.5 million tourists in 2006, including 150,000 foreigners. According to the Chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region, Qiangba Puncog, Tibet’s economy has grown on average 12% per year from 2000 to 2006. The per capita GDP reached 10,000 RMB in 2006 for the first time in Tibet’s history.
The historical money of Tibet started in ancient times, when Tibet had no currency of its own. Bartering was common, gold was a medium of exchange, and shell money and stone beads were used for very small purchases. A few coins from other countries were also occasionally in use. Coins were first used in a more extensive way in the 17th century: these were silver coins supplied by Nepal. There were however various difficulties with this system. In 1763/64 and 1785 the first silver coins were struck in Tibet. In 1792 the first mass-produced silver coins were created under joint Chinese Central and regional Tibetan authority. Coins bearing Chinese and local Tibetan legends.
Standard Tibetan, often called Central Tibetan, is the official language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang dialect of Dbus aka Ü, one of the Central Tibetan languages. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative.
The Tibetan language is generally classified as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Tibetan most closely resembles Burmese among the major languages of Asia.
Tibetan language is spoken in numerous regional dialects. Tibetan language is spoken throughout Tibetan plateau. It is also spoken in some parts of Bhutan, Nepal and in Northern India. Over 6 million people including Tibetans in exile speak Tibetan language.
Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim). It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia, and Tuva) and Northeast region of China.
Tibetan Buddhism comprises many distinct schools, but is primarily divided into four main traditions: Nyingma, Kagyu, Gelug, and Sakya. All schools categorize their teachings into three “vehicles”: Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana, although some schools, the Gelug for example, consider Vajrayana a part of Mahayana. The Nyingma tradition classifies the corpus of Buddhist teachings into Nine Yanas, among the highest of which is known as Atiyoga or Dzogchen (Great Perfection).